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Since 1995 I have studied how democratic politics works when digital media are in the mix. In recent years, I have focused on the accumulating problems for democracy that are associated with social media: selective exposure, polarization, populism, and disinformation.  One of my long-standing interests has been how digital media facilitate like-minded people finding one another and acting together, with or without the support of established organizations and their agendas. Throughout the 2000s and early 2010s, there were lots of cases of this kind of mobilization contributing to the richness of democracy, such as the Occupy Movement. More recently, the dark side of this process has become more apparent as people with hateful and extremist messages find one another and act together, and as people across societies are mobilized by conspiracy theories and other falsehoods.

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